Kubernetes ConfigMap热更新测试


探究ConfigMap的创建和更新流程

Kubernetes ConfigMap热更新测试

探究ConfigMap的创建和更新流程

Wed Nov 8, 2017

1800 Words|Read in about 4 Min
Tags: configmap   kubernetes  

ConfigMap热更新测试

ConfigMap是用来存储配置文件的kubernetes资源对象,所有的配置内容都存储在etcd中,下文主要是探究 ConfigMap 的创建和更新流程,以及对 ConfigMap 更新后容器内挂载的内容是否同步更新的测试。

测试示例

假设我们在 default namespace 下有一个名为 nginx-config 的 ConfigMap,可以使用 kubectl命令来获取:

$ kubectl get configmap nginx-config
NAME           DATA      AGE
nginx-config   1         99d

获取该ConfigMap的内容。

kubectl get configmap nginx-config -o yaml
apiVersion: v1
data:
  nginx.conf: |-
    worker_processes 1;

    events { worker_connections 1024; }

    http {
        sendfile on;

        server {
            listen 80;

            # a test endpoint that returns http 200s
            location / {
                proxy_pass http://httpstat.us/200;
                proxy_set_header  X-Real-IP  $remote_addr;
            }
        }

        server {

            listen 80;
            server_name api.hello.world;

            location / {
                proxy_pass http://l5d.default.svc.cluster.local;
                proxy_set_header Host $host;
                proxy_set_header Connection "";
                proxy_http_version 1.1;

                more_clear_input_headers 'l5d-ctx-*' 'l5d-dtab' 'l5d-sample';
            }
        }

        server {

            listen 80;
            server_name www.hello.world;

            location / {


                # allow 'employees' to perform dtab overrides
                if ($cookie_special_employee_cookie != "letmein") {
                  more_clear_input_headers 'l5d-ctx-*' 'l5d-dtab' 'l5d-sample';
                }

                # add a dtab override to get people to our beta, world-v2
                set $xheader "";

                if ($cookie_special_employee_cookie ~* "dogfood") {
                  set $xheader "/host/world => /srv/world-v2;";
                }

                proxy_set_header 'l5d-dtab' $xheader;


                proxy_pass http://l5d.default.svc.cluster.local;
                proxy_set_header Host $host;
                proxy_set_header Connection "";
                proxy_http_version 1.1;
            }
        }
    }
kind: ConfigMap
metadata:
  creationTimestamp: 2017-08-01T06:53:17Z
  name: nginx-config
  namespace: default
  resourceVersion: "14925806"
  selfLink: /api/v1/namespaces/default/configmaps/nginx-config
  uid: 18d70527-7686-11e7-bfbd-8af1e3a7c5bd

ConfigMap中的内容是存储到etcd中的,然后查询etcd:

ETCDCTL_API=3 etcdctl get /registry/configmaps/default/nginx-config
/registry/configmaps/default/nginx-config

注意使用 v3 版本的 etcdctl API,下面是输出结果:

k8s

v1	ConfigMap�

T

nginx-configdefault"*$18d70527-7686-11e7-bfbd-8af1e3a7c5bd28B
                                                            �ʀ����xz�


nginx.conf�
           worker_processes 1;

events { worker_connections 1024; }

http {
    sendfile on;

    server {
        listen 80;

        # a test endpoint that returns http 200s
        location / {
            proxy_pass http://httpstat.us/200;
            proxy_set_header  X-Real-IP  $remote_addr;
        }
    }

    server {

        listen 80;
        server_name api.hello.world;

        location / {
            proxy_pass http://l5d.default.svc.cluster.local;
            proxy_set_header Host $host;
            proxy_set_header Connection "";
            proxy_http_version 1.1;

            more_clear_input_headers 'l5d-ctx-*' 'l5d-dtab' 'l5d-sample';
        }
    }

    server {

        listen 80;
        server_name www.hello.world;

        location / {


            # allow 'employees' to perform dtab overrides
            if ($cookie_special_employee_cookie != "letmein") {
              more_clear_input_headers 'l5d-ctx-*' 'l5d-dtab' 'l5d-sample';
            }

            # add a dtab override to get people to our beta, world-v2
            set $xheader "";

            if ($cookie_special_employee_cookie ~* "dogfood") {
              set $xheader "/host/world => /srv/world-v2;";
            }

            proxy_set_header 'l5d-dtab' $xheader;


            proxy_pass http://l5d.default.svc.cluster.local;
            proxy_set_header Host $host;
            proxy_set_header Connection "";
            proxy_http_version 1.1;
        }
    }
}"

输出中在 nginx.conf 配置文件的基础中增加了文件头内容,是kubernetes增加的。

代码

ConfigMap 结构体的定义:

// ConfigMap holds configuration data for pods to consume.
type ConfigMap struct {
	metav1.TypeMeta `json:",inline"`
	// Standard object's metadata.
	// More info: http://releases.k8s.io/HEAD/docs/devel/api-conventions.md#metadata
	// +optional
	metav1.ObjectMeta `json:"metadata,omitempty" protobuf:"bytes,1,opt,name=metadata"`

	// Data contains the configuration data.
	// Each key must be a valid DNS_SUBDOMAIN with an optional leading dot.
	// +optional
	Data map[string]string `json:"data,omitempty" protobuf:"bytes,2,rep,name=data"`
}

staging/src/k8s.io/client-go/kubernetes/typed/core/v1/configmap.go 中ConfigMap 的接口定义:

// ConfigMapInterface has methods to work with ConfigMap resources.
type ConfigMapInterface interface {
	Create(*v1.ConfigMap) (*v1.ConfigMap, error)
	Update(*v1.ConfigMap) (*v1.ConfigMap, error)
	Delete(name string, options *meta_v1.DeleteOptions) error
	DeleteCollection(options *meta_v1.DeleteOptions, listOptions meta_v1.ListOptions) error
	Get(name string, options meta_v1.GetOptions) (*v1.ConfigMap, error)
	List(opts meta_v1.ListOptions) (*v1.ConfigMapList, error)
	Watch(opts meta_v1.ListOptions) (watch.Interface, error)
	Patch(name string, pt types.PatchType, data []byte, subresources ...string) (result *v1.ConfigMap, err error)
	ConfigMapExpansion
}

staging/src/k8s.io/client-go/kubernetes/typed/core/v1/configmap.go 中创建 ConfigMap 的方法如下:

// Create takes the representation of a configMap and creates it.  Returns the server's representation of the configMap, and an error, if there is any.
func (c *configMaps) Create(configMap *v1.ConfigMap) (result *v1.ConfigMap, err error) {
	result = &v1.ConfigMap{}
	err = c.client.Post().
		Namespace(c.ns).
		Resource("configmaps").
		Body(configMap).
		Do().
		Into(result)
	return
}

通过 RESTful 请求在 etcd 中存储 ConfigMap 的配置,该方法中设置了资源对象的 namespace 和 HTTP 请求中的 body,执行后将请求结果保存到 result 中返回给调用者。

注意 Body 的结构

// Body makes the request use obj as the body. Optional.
// If obj is a string, try to read a file of that name.
// If obj is a []byte, send it directly.
// If obj is an io.Reader, use it directly.
// If obj is a runtime.Object, marshal it correctly, and set Content-Type header.
// If obj is a runtime.Object and nil, do nothing.
// Otherwise, set an error.

创建 ConfigMap RESTful 请求中的的 Body 中包含 ObjectMetanamespace

HTTP 请求中的结构体:

// Request allows for building up a request to a server in a chained fashion.
// Any errors are stored until the end of your call, so you only have to
// check once.
type Request struct {
	// required
	client HTTPClient
	verb   string

	baseURL     *url.URL
	content     ContentConfig
	serializers Serializers

	// generic components accessible via method setters
	pathPrefix string
	subpath    string
	params     url.Values
	headers    http.Header

	// structural elements of the request that are part of the Kubernetes API conventions
	namespace    string
	namespaceSet bool
	resource     string
	resourceName string
	subresource  string
	timeout      time.Duration

	// output
	err  error
	body io.Reader

	// This is only used for per-request timeouts, deadlines, and cancellations.
	ctx context.Context

	backoffMgr BackoffManager
	throttle   flowcontrol.RateLimiter
}

测试

分别测试使用 ConfigMap 挂载 Env 和 Volume 的情况。

更新使用ConfigMap挂载的Env

使用下面的配置创建 nginx 容器测试更新 ConfigMap 后容器内的环境变量是否也跟着更新。

apiVersion: extensions/v1beta1
kind: Deployment
metadata:
  name: my-nginx
spec:
  replicas: 1
  template:
    metadata:
      labels:
        run: my-nginx
    spec:
      containers:
      - name: my-nginx
        image: sz-pg-oam-docker-hub-001.tendcloud.com/library/nginx:1.9
        ports:
        - containerPort: 80
        envFrom:
        - configMapRef:
            name: env-config
---
apiVersion: v1
kind: ConfigMap
metadata:
  name: env-config
  namespace: default
data:
  log_level: INFO

获取环境变量的值

$ kubectl exec `kubectl get pods -l run=my-nginx  -o=name|cut -d "/" -f2` env|grep log_level
log_level=INFO

修改 ConfigMap

$ kubectl edit configmap env-config

修改 log_level 的值为 DEBUG

再次查看环境变量的值。

$ kubectl exec `kubectl get pods -l run=my-nginx  -o=name|cut -d "/" -f2` env|grep log_level
log_level=INFO

实践证明修改 ConfigMap 无法更新容器中已注入的环境变量信息。

更新使用ConfigMap挂载的Volume

使用下面的配置创建 nginx 容器测试更新 ConfigMap 后容器内挂载的文件是否也跟着更新。

apiVersion: extensions/v1beta1
kind: Deployment
metadata:
  name: my-nginx
spec:
  replicas: 1
  template:
    metadata:
      labels:
        run: my-nginx
    spec:
      containers:
      - name: my-nginx
        image: sz-pg-oam-docker-hub-001.tendcloud.com/library/nginx:1.9
        ports:
        - containerPort: 80
      volumeMounts:
      - name: config-volume
        mountPath: /etc/config
      volumes:
        - name: config-volume
          configMap:
            name: special-config
---
apiVersion: v1
kind: ConfigMap
metadata:
  name: special-config
  namespace: default
data:
  log_level: INFO
$ kubectl exec `kubectl get pods -l run=my-nginx  -o=name|cut -d "/" -f2` cat /tmp/log_level
INFO

修改 ConfigMap

$ kubectl edit configmap special-config

修改 log_level 的值为 DEBUG

等待大概10秒钟时间,再次查看环境变量的值。

$ kubectl exec `kubectl get pods -l run=my-nginx  -o=name|cut -d "/" -f2` cat /tmp/log_level
DEBUG

我们可以看到使用 ConfigMap 方式挂载的 Volume 的文件中的内容已经变成了 DEBUG

总结

更新 ConfigMap 后:

  • 使用该 ConfigMap 挂载的 Env 不会同步更新
  • 使用该 ConfigMap 挂载的 Volume 中的数据需要一段时间(实测大概10秒)才能同步更新

ENV 是在容器启动的时候注入的,启动之后 kubernetes 就不会再改变环境变量的值,且同一个 namespace 中的 pod 的环境变量是不断累加的,参考 Kubernetes中的服务发现与docker容器间的环境变量传递源码探究。为了更新容器中使用 ConfigMap 挂载的配置,可以通过滚动更新 pod 的方式来强制重新挂载 ConfigMap,也可以在更新了 ConfigMap 后,先将副本数设置为 0,然后再扩容。

参考

See Also

Wed Nov 8, 2017

1800 Words|Read in about 4 Min
Tags: configmap   kubernetes